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Table 1 Ecosystem services of greatest relevance to cities, classified according to the scheme of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [75, 115]. Adapted from McDonald [30]

From: The green soul of the concrete jungle: the urban century, the urban psychological penalty, and the role of nature

Ecosystem service
Provisioning services:
 Agriculture (crops, livestock, aquaculture, etc.)
 Water (quantity)
Cultural services:
 Aesthetic Benefits
 Recreation & Tourism
 Physical Health
 Mental Health
 Spiritual value and sense of place
 Biodiversity
Regulating services:
 Drinking water protection (water quality)
 Stormwater mitigation
 Mitigating flood risk
 Coastal protection
 Air purification (particulates, ozone)
 Shade and heat wave mitigation