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Table 1 Typology of knowledge use based on [8]

From: Improving collaborative knowledge production for climate change mitigation: lessons from EU Horizon 2020 experiences

  Policymaking as puzzling Policymaking as powering
Direct informing Instrumental use Symbolic use
Indirect informing Enlightenment use Political use
  1. The different types of knowledge use can be organised according to whether they inform policies directly or more indirectly. Depending on whether the policy process is about rational ‘puzzling’ for optimal solutions or about organising ‘power’ for decisions, types of knowledge use are different