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Table 2 List of criteria distinguished

From: The practice of climate change policy evaluations in the European Union and its member states: results from a meta-analysis

CriterionExamples of associated questions
Goal attainment/ EffectivenessHave specified goals been attained? Can this be attributed to the policy?
E.g. Has the policy reduced absolute greenhouse gas emissions by the targeted level?
Cost-effectivenessHow much of a given benefit is delivered per unit of expenditure?
E.g. How many tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been reduced for each Euro?
EfficiencyHave the optimal goals been formulated?
E.g. Is the price of carbon right?
FairnessHow are the costs and benefits of a policy distributed among certain sectors of society?
E.g. Does the EU emissions trading system (ETS) lead to windfall profits for power producers?
LegitimacyDoes the public accept the policies? Does the policy meet criteria of democratic accountability, such as transparency?
E.g. How much public support is there for policies to promote wind power?
CoordinationIs the policy well-coordinated with other policies?
E.g. How does the use of renewable energy certificates interact with the EU ETS?
Legal admissibilityIs the policy compatible with legal rules and principles?
E.g. Is the Member State’s energy efficiency policy in line with the Energy Efficiency Directive or the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union?
  1. Source: based on Fischer [11] and Huitema et al. [6]