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Table 2 The community benefits and costs of urban greening (with a focus upon biophilic urbanism elements)

From: Evaluating net community benefits of integrating nature within cities

Impacts
(Benefits ‘+’ and Costs ‘-‘ as indicated)
Building Scale Elements Neighbourhood Scale Elements City Scale Elements
1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3
Indoor & atrium vegetation Green Roofs Green Walls (Internal & External) Green verges, green streets, greenways, street trees, walk-ways Green islands, pocket parks, vacant land Other outdoor lot level lawns, gardens, trees Green corridors, buffer zones; public areas Urban gardens & farming Green Waterways & water sensitive design
ECONOMIC
 ▪ Tourism revenues +   ++ ++ ++ + ++ + ++
 ▪ Water availability, security, groundwater   +   + + ++ + ++ ++
 ▪ Soil and other natural resource demands     + + ++ + ++ ++
 ▪ Recreational/discretionary time availability     + ++ ++ + ++ +
 ▪ Property values, retail, other related revenue +   + +   ++ ++ ++ +
 ▪ Worker productivity and returns ++ + +       
 ▪ Resources for health care ++ +   + + +   +  
 ▪ Energy demands, productivity security + + + + + +   + +
 ▪ Food production and security       + + ++ +
 ▪ Water demands, productivity,    + + + + + +
 ▪ Damage costs to infrastructure   + + + +   +   ++
 ▪ Pests and disease +   + + + + + + +
ECOSPHERE HEALTH
 ▪ Broad-scale ecosystem vitality   + + ++ ++ + ++ + ++
 ▪ Biological and genetic diversity   + + ++ ++ + ++ + ++
 ▪ Broad-scale pollution management functions   + + ++ ++ + ++ + ++
 ▪ Pollination, growth, health of plant species + + + + ++ + ++ + ++
INDIVIDUAL PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH (AESTHETIC, SPIRITUAL, ECO-PSYCHOLOGICAL)
 ▪ Pollution-related mitigation ++ + + + + + + + +
 ▪ Wellbeing from immersion in nature ++ + + ++ + ++ + ++ +
 ▪ Other aesthetic, spiritual, inspirational value ++ + + ++ + ++ ++ ++ +
 ▪ Mood and well-being +   + ++ + ++ + ++ +
 ▪ Exercise-related effects     + + ++ ++ ++ +
 ▪ Ill-health recovery time +    + + +   + +
URBAN QUALITY OF LIFE, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
 ▪ Microclimate changes + ++ ++ ++ + ++ + + +
 ▪ Noise pollution abatement + + + ++ + ++ + +  
 ▪ Waste/ pollution detox, filtering, composting ++ + + + + ++ ++ ++ ++
 ▪ Other effects on urban environments + + + + ++ ++ + ++ +
 ▪ Enhanced soils, urban ecosystem vitality     + + ++ ++ ++ ++
 ▪ Water supply quantity, security, quality   +   + + ++ + ++ ++
 ▪ Health, safety, resource savings and welfare     + + + + + ++
URBAN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CAPITAL
 ▪ Nature-based cultural identification   + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
 ▪ Sociocultural capital, knowledge economies + + + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
 ▪ Social capital-building, interaction, trust     + ++ + + ++ +
 ▪ Spiritual, cultural, historical and heritage     + + + ++ + +
 ▪ Ornamental, culturally significant resources + + + + + + ++ + +
URBAN VITALITY AND EXPERIENCE
 ▪ Urban vitality, environment, experience ++ + + ++ ++ + ++ + ++
 ▪ Associated economic quality of life benefits ++ + + ++ ++ + ++ + ++
 ▪ Efficiency, speed, access - transport networks     + + + ++ + +
 ▪ Traffic calming, incidences     + + + ++ + +