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Table 4 Key constraints to implementation

From: Evaluating net community benefits of integrating nature within cities

Aspect Constraint Details and examples
Biophysical Capability 1. The biophysical character of built environment Considering available space, urban space limits; relative demand levels for housing; urban morphology, site contamination, physical geographic and geological features, vegetation characteristics, climate; water conditions and systems
2. Existing urban form With strong constraints likely in high density, high population, rapid urbanisation and low open space cities in low and middle-income nations
Socio-Political and Economic Feasibility 3. Maintenance and other immediate economic costs As listed in section 3.2
4. Planning systems - complexity and uncertainty Planning priorities; institutional inertia; too few planners; uncertainty; rigid traditional planning approaches and knowledge; lack of experience with urban greening; concerns over significant change (e.g. roots encroachment, structural integrity, water damage)
5. Other institutional frameworks and decision-making and governance structures - Including economic; and socio-political factors such as fiscal constraints, governance systems e.g. government role and power vis-a-vis corporate and other private sector actors, public involvement in decision-making and planning. The long-term nature of many urban greening benefits (or costs prevented) conflicts with many aspects of politico-economic systems and short-term economic performance cycles.
6. Perceptions and values of residents - biophobia involvement Disconnect or lack of familiarity with, and hence fear of, nature, partially due to socialisation into artificial, controlled environments; cultural perceptions of nature; economic history and attitudes towards public market forces ideology influence
Miscellaneous Constraints 7. Ambiguity about concepts and approaches Open space, urban green space, and green infrastructure. Addressing this issue has been one of the major aims of this paper. Uncertainty regarding the “green-ness” or biophilic services associated with some urban features e.g. lawns.
8. Lack of data about net benefits Uncertainty, complexity of relevant dose-response relations (and about external changes e.g. climate change); economic valuation limits; “agency of nature” [35]
9. Path dependence Spatial planning and urban form changes as politically unpalatable and expensive - Loss of short-term profit, capital gains, lost revenue and tax, infrastructure cost); property rights constraints