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Table 4 Framework for biophilic streets design

From: Biophilic streets: a design framework for creating multiple urban benefits

Framework functions and objectives Biophilic design elements
Design functions Selected design objectives Building façades Road reserves Pocket parks
Traffic planning Creating space for biophilic designs by redesigning traffic lanes, traffic calming schemes, reducing lanes, prioritizing pedestrians, transit and bicycle lanes and providing pocket parks. Integrating vertical greenery into and onto buildings, such as green walls, green balconies, planter boxes; green roofs. Integrating native gardens, edible gardens, nature playgrounds and other biophilic features on verges, median strips, round-about, ‘ramblas’, green bridges and flyovers, buffers between roads and cycling and/or pedestrian paths. Integrating native gardens, edible gardens, nature playgrounds, water features, habitats for birds, insects and small animals, street furniture and amenities in median strips, ‘ramblas’, roundabouts, vacant lots, plazas, spaces between buildings.
Energy management Cooling streets for walking, reducing urban heat island effect and saving energy through insulating buildings. Green walls, roofs, and balconies to provide thermal insulation; cooling (evapotranspiration); air purification; relaxation.
Combination of green roofs and solar panels.
Tree canopies that shade pedestrians as well as shading buildings. Pocket parks can be built around all three energy management ideas.
Stormwater management Water retention, purification, and reuse. Green walls, green roofs, green balconies that filter rain. Street trees, tree pits, linear gardens, bioswales, rain gardens, daylighted streams. Rainwater tanks, pervious pavements.
Biodiversity management Biodiversity enhancement, restoration, creation of various habitat sizes and types that enable regeneration of urban ecosystems. Green walls, green roofs, green balconies. Street trees, tree pits, linear gardens, bioswales, rain gardens, daylighting streams. Plant beds, potted shrubs and trees, green walls, water features.
Street furniture Incorporating biophilics into every small function in the street, including seats, signs, bus shelters, street art. Street art combined with filtration systems to conduct runoff from green roofs. Parklets
Green roofs on top of bus and transit shelters.
Street art combined with filtration systems.
‘City trees’ installation to facilitate air purification.
Vertical pallet edible gardens.
Urban furniture to support natural systems.
Green roofs on top of bus and transit shelters.
Street art combined with filtration systems.
‘City trees’ installation to facilitate air purification.
Vertical pallet edible gardens.
Activity and education Enabling both activity that uses street functions and understanding of how nature fits into the city as well as the social and cultural value of the street. Tourist and visitor information in streets explaining biophilic facades. Integrated street furniture with green features explained. Educational features – information plates, educational stations; activity points (smart play equipment, art installations, water features). Integrated street furniture with green features explained. Educational features – information plates, educational stations; activity points (smart play equipment, art installations, water features).