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Table 5 Application of the framework for biophilic streets design in four analysed street projects

From: Biophilic streets: a design framework for creating multiple urban benefits

Functions of a biophilic street Biophilic design elements applied to analysed street projects
Gasteiz Hiribidea, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain Downtown in Berkeley, California, USA SW Montgomery Street, Portland, Oregon, USA Green Lanes, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Traffic planning - prioritizing pedestrians and cyclists;
- enhancing facilities for transit;
- slowing traffic.
- prioritizing pedestrians and cyclists;
- enhancing walkability standards;
- reducing existing traffic lanes;
- lowered traffic speed.
- prioritizing pedestrians and cyclist (kerb-less paving);
- narrowing existing traffic lanes;
- lowered traffic speed;
- sections of the street closed to traffic.
- limited traffic (local only)
- shared space between pedestrian and vehicles.
Energy management - energy reduction due to ecological runoff treatment;
- insulation capabilities of green walls and roofs systems;
- heat island effect mitigation by tree canopies, landscaping and waterbodies.
- energy reduction due to ecological runoff treatment;
- insulation capabilities of green walls and roofs systems;
- heat island effect mitigation by tree canopies, landscaping and waterbodies.
- energy reduction due to ecological runoff treatment;
- insulation capabilities of green walls and roofs systems;
- air temperature regulation through landscaping.
- energy reduction through ‘green insulation’;
- heat island effect mitigation through landscaping and miniature raingardens.
Storm water management - retention in underground cisterns;
- Infiltration via permeable surfaces
- purification using bio-filters (plants);
- recycling via green wall and roof systems;
- bio-filtration through daylighted stream.
- retention in underground cisterns;
- Infiltration via permeable surfaces;
- retention and bio-filtration through swales, raingardens;
- purification using bio-filters (plants);
- recycling via green wall and roof systems;
- bio-filtration through daylighted stream.
- Infiltration via permeable surfaces;
- retention and bio-filtration through stormwater planters and raingardens;
- purification using bio-filters (plants);
- recycling via green wall and roof systems.
- Infiltration via permeable surfaces;
- retention and bio-filtration through raingardens;
- recycling via green wall systems.
Biodiversity management - green walls, roof and living stream designed for biodiversity enhancement and ecological restoration;
- daylighted and restored stream with riparian plants provide habitats for wildlife and facilitate species migration.
- green walls designed for biodiversity enhancement and ecological restoration;
- daylighted and restored stream with riparian plants provide habitats for wildlife and facilitate species migration.
- green walls designed for biodiversity enhancement and ecological restoration;
- use of native species
- green corridors connect fragmented green areas;
- raingardens provide habitat for wildlife.
- green walls, planters, miniature raingardens designed for biodiversity enhancement and ecological restoration;
- habitats for wildlife and facilitate species migration.
Street furniture - integrated street furniture; tree pits and sittings expressing ecological sensitivity; - parklets in parking spaces;
- natural buffer between sidewalks and traffic;
- public art supporting environmental awareness;
- permeable paving facilitating rainwater infiltration.
- green wall and roof systems;
- permeable paving facilitating rainwater infiltration.
- planter-boxes with irrigation systems;
- green wall system hanging baskets and miniature raingardens;
- permeable paving facilitating rainwater infiltration.
Activity and education - activity features for kids: sculptures, water features;
- informative design of green walls and roofs;
- interpretive plates and signs;
- exposed ecological systems.
- interactive play equipment;
- interpretive plates and signs;
- exposed ecological systems;
- parklets and temporary installations.
- interpretive plates and signs;
- exposed ecological systems;
- green infrastructure serves educational and research purposes;
- activation of shopfronts supports community living.
- green infrastructure serves educational and research purposes.